Regulations Are On Hold as Kratom Debate Rages

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Dijon Evans, Sacramento, CA.

Kim DeMott, Sacramento, CA

Katherine Pfaff, DEA spokesperson.

Christopher R. McCurdy, PhD, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville.

Walter C. Prozialeck, PhD, professor of pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL.

Scott Gottlieb, MD, FDA commissioner.

Twitter: @SGottliebFDA, Aug. 17, 2018.

Petition.whitehouse.gov: “Please do not make Kratom a Schedule I Substance.”

The New England Journal of Medicine: “Deaths in Colorado Attributed to Kratom.”

Drug and Alcohol Dependence: “Patterns of Kratom use and health impact in the US — Results from an online survey.”

Addiction Biology: “Kratom: What Is the Verdict?”

Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology: “Fatal combination of mitragynine and quetiapine — a case report with discussion of a potential herb-drug interaction.”

Journal of Psychoactive Drugs: “Long-Term Cognitive Effects of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Use.”

Journal of Psychoactive Drugs: “Kratom Withdrawal: A Systematic Review with Case Series.”

Drug and Alcohol Dependence: “Kratom use and mental health: A systematic review.”

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry: “Mitragynine/Corynantheidine Pseudoindoxyls As Opioid Analgesics with Mu Agonism and Delta Antagonism, Which Do Not Recruit β-Arrestin-2.”

The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association: “Pharmacology of Kratom: An Emerging Botanical Agent With Stimulant, Analgesic and Opioid-Like Effects.”

CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 29, 2016: “Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers — United States, 2010-2015. Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Kratom (Final Update).”

National Institute on Drug Abuse: “What is kratom?”

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration: “Drugs of Abuse: A DEA resource guide,” “DEA Announces Intent to Schedule Kratom,” “Drugs of Concern.”

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services spokesperson.

Huffington Post: “Congress Calls Out DEA For Unilateral Move To Expand The War On Drugs.”

Federal Register: “Withdrawal of Notice of Intent to Temporarily Place Mitragynine and 7- Hydroxymitragynine into Schedule I.”

American Kratom Association: News release, “AKA Policy Report, December 2018,” “Petition to Acting DEA Administrator Dhillon,” “AKA Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Standards Program.”

Botanical Education Alliance: “Science Letter on Kratom, Feb. 8th, 2018,” “Kratom Legality Map.”

The New England Journal of Medicine: “Deaths in Colorado Attributed to Kratom.”